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In China's Social Insurance in the Twentieth Century, Aiqun Hu develops a framework of "interactive diffusion of global models" in examining the history of China's social insurance since the 1910s. The book covers both Nationalist- and Communist-controlled areas (1927-1949) and Taiwan (1949-present), surpassing the party divide. It argues that China's progression in social insurance resulted from diffusion of two global models (German capitalist and Soviet socialist social insurance) until the early 1990s. Thereafter, China's social insurance reforms were increasingly directed by the World Bank's neoliberal models, which also influenced Taiwan's pension reforms. During the entire process, however, global forces provided the basic intellectual framework, while national forces determined the timing and specifics of adopting the models.