Statistics published by the U. S. Department of Commerce (1980) indicate that in 1977 we spent 8. 1% of our gross national product (GNP) on life, health, property-casualty, and other forms of insurance. An additional 5. 7% was used to pay the Social Security tax, which is another form of insurance premium, for a total of 14. 8% of the GNP. Although insurance had its historical origin in marine insurance, it has now developed into one of the major industries of the American economy and extends into many areas of economic activity. One area where growth has been particularly strong is the medical sector. Health insurance is a major institution in all industrialized countries. It became a government responsibility in 1883 when Bismarck intro- duced a compulsory program of health insurance for industrial workers in Germany. Programs for workers in various industrial and income categories soon followed in other European countries-Austria (1888), Hungary (1891), Norway (1909), Servia (1910), Great Britain (1911), and Russia and Romania (1912) (Rubinow, 1913:250). Programs in these countries were extended in subsequent years, and other countries in Europe followed with their own programs. Consequently, today most industrial countries have universal or near-universal health insurance coverage. In the United States the issue of national health insurance has been seriously debated since just prior to World War I, and polling data since the 1930s show that a substantial majority of the public has been supportive of such a program (Erskine, 1975).
An evolving regulatory landscape and changing economic conditions continue to affect business organization and capital requirements in the global insurance industry, leading to new participants, new transactions, and new challenges. PLI s new Insurance and Investment Management M&A Deskbook provides attorneys with an essential reference to keep up with emerging trends in insurance and investment management M&A. The Deskbook covers topics such as acquisitions of public insurance companies, blocks of insurance business and private acquisitions; the regulatory environment of the insurance industry and the financial services industry; investment in the insurance industry by private equity and pension funds; and the expansion of insurance industry participants into emerging markets around the globe. The Deskbook also provides specific guidance for understanding Lloyd s of London and the M&A market for mutual life insurers."
This book presents a market-consistent valuation framework for implicit embedded options in life insurance contracts. This framework is used to perform an empirical analysis based on more than 110,000 actual and in-force life insurance policies and with a focus on the modeling of interest rates. Its results are the answer to the central question posed in the objectives: What value do the embedded options and guarantees considered have? This question is answered both absolutely and relative to the current policy reserves, from the perspective of the insurer, the policyholder and the shareholder respectively
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Discover the essential tool to prepare for a career in medical insurance billing -- UNDERSTANDING HEALTH INSURANCE, 13E. This comprehensive, easy-to-understand, updated book presents the latest code sets and guidelines. You cover today's most important topics, such as managed care, legal and regulatory issues, coding systems, reimbursement methods, medical necessity, and common health insurance plans. Updates introduce new legislation that impacts health care, including the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare); ICD-10-CM coding; electronic health records; Medicaid Integrity Contractors; case mix management; hospital-acquired conditions; present on admission; and value-based purchasing. Practice exercises and the workbook (available separately) provides application-based assignments and case studies to reinforce your understanding, as well as CMRS, CPC-P, and CPB Mock Exams. New editions include online access to SimClaim CMS-1500 claims completion software and Optum's EncoderPro.com Expert.