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Statistics published by the U. S. Department of Commerce (1980) indicate that in 1977 we spent 8. 1% of our gross national product (GNP) on life, health, property-casualty, and other forms of insurance. An additional 5. 7% was used to pay the Social Security tax, which is another form of insurance premium, for a total of 14. 8% of the GNP. Although insurance had its historical origin in marine insurance, it has now developed into one of the major industries of the American economy and extends into many areas of economic activity. One area where growth has been particularly strong is the medical sector. Health insurance is a major institution in all industrialized countries. It became a government responsibility in 1883 when Bismarck intro- duced a compulsory program of health insurance for industrial workers in Germany. Programs for workers in various industrial and income categories soon followed in other European countries-Austria (1888), Hungary (1891), Norway (1909), Servia (1910), Great Britain (1911), and Russia and Romania (1912) (Rubinow, 1913:250). Programs in these countries were extended in subsequent years, and other countries in Europe followed with their own programs. Consequently, today most industrial countries have universal or near-universal health insurance coverage. In the United States the issue of national health insurance has been seriously debated since just prior to World War I, and polling data since the 1930s show that a substantial majority of the public has been supportive of such a program (Erskine, 1975).
The Insurance Act 2015 represents the first major reform of English commercial insurance law for many years. Its impact will be felt not only in England, where it will greatly affect both maritime and commercial insurance practice, but also elsewhere where English law is the law of choice in insurance contracts.
Timed to coincide with the coming into force of the Act, The Insurance Act 2015: A New Regime for Commercial and Marine Insurance Law analyses in depth the key aspects of the Act and extensively restates and modifies a number of legal principles applying both at common law and under the Marine Insurance Act 1906. Offering much more than the usual commentary on legislation, this book provides critical in-depth analysis of the important topics as was all coverage of areas likely to spawn disputes in future.
Written by leading practitioners and academics in the field, this book offers comprehensive, coherent and practical legal analysis of the changes introduced by the Insurance Act 2015. The Insurance Act 2015: A New Regime for Commercial and Marine Insurance Law will be of interest to practitioners, insurance professionals and academics
Approximately 40 per cent of value of international trade comes from goods carried by air, and the consequences of goods being damaged, destroyed or delayed can be serious, substantial, and perhaps unforeseen. This exciting new book is the only one on the market that deals exclusively with air cargo insurance, and will therefore, be a vital addition to the collection of any practitioner, professional or academic working in the field. Air Cargo Insurance analyses the model policies and standard terms and conditions on the London, US and European markets. The authors also provide readers with an invaluable perspective on cases in other jurisdictions, and, uniquely, the book discusses freight forwarders' relations with airlines and addresses the possibility of recovery from third parties. This book, written by two of the leading experts in the field, provides invaluable guidance to practitioners, arbitrators and cargo-claims professionals. It will help to ensure that air cargo insurance contracts are sufficient and enforceable from the outset, as well as assisting in cases of disputed claims. Academics and postgraduate students specialising in the areas of in air and insurance law will also find this book extremely useful.