The book examines how the absence of insurance in the past led to some special maritime liability law principles such as 'general average' (i.e., losses or expenses shared by all the parties to a maritime adventure) and the limitation of shipowners' liability. In the absence of insurance, these principles served the function of insurance mostly for shipowners. As commercial marine insurance is now widely available, these principles have lost their justification and may in fact interfere with the most important goal of liability law i.e., deterrence from negligence. The work thus recommends their abolition. It further argues that when insurance is easily available and affordable to the both parties to a liability claim, the main goal of liability law should be deterrence as opposed to compensation. This is exactly the case with the maritime cargo liability claims where both cargo owners and shipowners are invariably insured. As a result, the sole focus of cargo liability law should be and to a great extent, is deterrence. On the other hand in the vessel-source oil pollution liability setting, pollution victims are not usually insured. Therefore oil pollution liability law has to cater both for compensation and deterrence, the two traditional goals of liability law. The final question the work addresses is whether the deterrent effect of liability law is affected by the availability of liability insurance. Contrary to the popular belief the work attempts to prove that the presence of liability insurance is not necessarily a hindrance but can be a complementary force towards the realization of deterrent goal of liability law.
A condensed version of the classic Fundamentals of Risk and Insurance, this accessible text contains the latest forms, statutes and court decisions and examines specific contracts in detail to emphasize insurance principles. Addresses such timely issues as the high cost of medical care and automobile insurance. detail to emphasize insurance principles. The helpful study aids and the critical essentials of risk management and insurance remain intact. A special section on buying insurance prepares the reader for future purchases.
A comprehensive guide designed to help consumers understand the American health insurance system so that they can obtain the benefits to which they are entitled. Epstein explains the ins and outs of both new and traditional health insurance plans, including traditional individual and group policies, HMOs and other types of managed care plans, self-funded plans, Medicare, Medicare HMOs, Medigap, long-term care, COBRA, CHAMPUS, and Medical Savings Accounts.
Written by a nationally syndicated columnist, this useful volume also deals with special health insurance issues related to children, adults with special needs, and individuals who may need long-term care. In addition, Epstein provides valuable information for individuals who are in the process of changing jobs or making changes in their marital or family status, choosing a health insurance plan, or arranging long-term care-including placement in a nursing home or an assisted-living facility-for an aging parent. The book has a practical focus with a variety of tables and worksheets to help consumers establish a system for preventing health insurance problems, and for dealing with any health insurance problems that may arise. It also contains answers to common questions about health insurance, and provides a list of organizations that offer detailed information and advice in regard to specific health insurance problems.
The Low Carb Diet is exactly what it sounds like - a diet that is low in carbohydrates, particularly processed grains and starchy vegetables. This diet is a great tool for weight loss, though it provides a variety of other benefits as well. If you are thinking about switching to a low-carb diet, this book is the perfect place for you to start. In this book you will receive the following: An introduction to the Low Carb Diet A list of foods to eat and avoid on the diet A collection of 25 delicious Low Carb Diet recipes If you are ready to give the Low Carb Diet a try, then simply pick a recipe from this book and start cooking! You won't be disappointed.
This book provides a much-needed analysis of this very important subject for international business lawyers, including discussion of the jurisdictional and choice of laws issues arising from cross-border contracts of insurance and reinsurance concluded by electronic means. This book is the first published in England to devote itself to a detailed analysis of the choice of laws rules in the E.C. Insurance Directives. It is aimed at academics and practitioners, at private international lawyers and at insurance lawyers. The private international law rules of the E.C. Insurance Directives deal with the applicable law to insurance contracts covering risks situated within the EU. They do not deal with the applicable law to reinsurance contracts and insurance contracts covering risks situated outside the EU. This should be ascertained by reference to the choice of laws provisions in the 1980 Rome Convention on the law applicable to contractual obligations. Detailed discussion of these rules is also provided, and proposals for reform suggested.